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Heliocentrism (16th Century): Nicolaus Copernicus proposed the heliocentric model of the solar system, which suggested that the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun, challenging the geocentric view.
Image Credit: Wikipedia
Newton's Laws of Motion and Universal Gravitation (17th Century): Sir Isaac Newton formulated the laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation, which explained how objects move and interact with each other through gravitational forces.
Image Credit: Britannica
Microbiology (17th Century): Antonie van Leeuwenhoek developed the microscope and made groundbreaking observations of microorganisms, laying the foundation for the field of microbiology.
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Electricity and Magnetism (18th and 19th Centuries): Michael Faraday's work on electromagnetic induction and James Clerk Maxwell's equations describing electromagnetism transformed our understanding of electricity and magnetism, leading to the development of technologies like electricity generation and telecommunications.
Image Credit: Britannica
Evolution by Natural Selection (19th Century): Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace independently proposed the theory of evolution by natural selection, explaining how species change over time through the process of adaptation.
Image Credit: National Geographic Society
Theory of Relativity (20th Century): Albert Einstein's theories of special and general relativity revolutionized our understanding of space, time, and gravity, ultimately leading to advances in nuclear physics and the development of technologies like GPS.
Image Credit: Smithsonian Magazine
Quantum Mechanics (20th Century): Quantum mechanics, developed by scientists such as Max Planck, Niels Bohr, and Werner Heisenberg, describes the behavior of particles at the atomic and subatomic levels, leading to the development of quantum computing and modern electronics.
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Discovery of DNA Structure (1953): James Watson and Francis Crick elucidated the double-helix structure of DNA, which provided key insights into genetics and molecular biology.
Image Credit: Exploratorium
Moon Landing (1969): NASA's Apollo 11 mission successfully landed astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, marking a historic moment in space exploration.
Image Credit: The Guardian
Human Genome Project (2003): The completion of the Human Genome Project, led by an international team of scientists, provided a comprehensive map of the human genome, advancing genetics research and personalized medicine.
Image Credit: Genome.gov
Discovery of Gravitational Waves (2015): The LIGO and Virgo collaborations confirmed the existence of gravitational waves, ripples in spacetime predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity, opening a new era of gravitational wave astronomy.
Image Credit: MIT News
These breakthroughs represent just a fraction of the many significant advancements in science and technology that have shaped our understanding of the universe and improved our quality of life.